Biennial Flight Review (BFR)

The following is a list of questions designed to help you prepare for your Biennial Flight Review (BFR):

  1. What is the duration of validity for your medical certificate?
  2. What class of medical certificate is required to exercise the privileges of your pilot license?
  3. What Types of aircraft can you fly with your pilot certificate and what are the limitations?
  4. What is SRM? PAVE?
  5. Can a drug or alcohol conviction affect your pilot privileges? Are you supposed to report it to FAA?
  6. Refusal to submit to a blood alcohol test when required by FAA authority is grounds for what ?
  7. To exercise your pilot certificate privileges, are you required to have a periodic flight review? What kind of flight review and how often?
  8. If your address has changed, how long after a change of address do you have to notify the FAA about it?
  9. When may a private pilot accept money for flying an aircraft? how much?
  10. What are the “recency of flight experience” requirements to carry passengers for Day VFR and Night VFR?
  11. You drank a beer at 10.00pm , your  friend wants to go flying with you early next morning. What time is the earliest that you can you take him flying?
  12. When can a student pilot log pilot in command time?
  13. Are you required to Log every flight in your pilot Log book? What type of flights must be Logged in your Log book?
  14. What are the required actions by pilot prior to takeoff, after engine run up?
  15. Are you permitted to drop objects from your aircraft in flight?
  16. Do you have to calculate weight and Balance for your aircraft each time you fly?
  17. What is the blood alcohol limit for pilots?
  18. What is a Mode C Transponder? When must you have it?
  19. You and two friends flew to Santa Barbara for the weekend. Prior to the return flight, you find that one of your passengers is quite drunk and ready to board the plane. What would be your actions?
  20. What are the fuel reserves  required for a daytime VFR and night VFR flight in your aircraft.
  21. What are the documents required to be on your person for a flight?
  22. What are the documents that are required to be in the aircraft for a flight?
  23. When are you required to have  supplemental oxygen for the flight crew? For the Passengers?
  24. What all equipment is required to be installed and working in the aircraft for flight, Day VFR ? Night VFR
  25. What is an ELT? When must you have one in your aircraft ?
  26. Where must the ELT battery expiration date be posted? When do you have to replace the ELT battery?
  27. Describe the rule governing the right of way for:
    a. Aircraft in distress
    c. Overtaking
    d. Landing
  28. What are the speed limits that apply to a propeller aircraft?
  29. When and where is aerobatic flight permitted or prohibited?
  30. Describe the aircraft position lights (which color is where on the aircraft?).
  31. When must the position lights be on? When must the anti-collision lights be kept On ?
  32. If your radios have failed while on downwind at a tower-controlled airport. The tower begins using light signals to communicate with you. What is the meaning of a steady red? Flashing green? Flashing red? Steady green? What should be your actions on each?
  33. After landing at a towered airport without radios. The tower continues to use light signals to communicate with you. What is the meaning of a steady red? Flashing red? Steady green? Flashing green?Alternating red and green? Flashing white?
  34. Describe the flight rules regarding the minimum altitude at which you may fly VFR.
  35. When is a flight plan required (VFR)?
  36. Define the following types of airspace; locate each on a sectional chart; describe the VFR weather minimums for operating in each; describe the equipment requirements for operating in each; describe the communications/clearances required to operate in each:

Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E
Class F
Class G
Warning Area
Restricted Area
Prohibited Area
Special Flight Rules Area
VFR Corridor

  1. Are any of the requirements of 35., above, different for a student pilot as opposed to a private pilot? Recreational pilot?
  2. What is special VFR? When would you use it? How do you get it? What hazards are associated with it (day, night)?
  3. What are the VFR cruising altitudes?
  4. What inspections are required on your aircraft? How often? Where are they recorded?
  5. Does a transponder require calibration? When?
  6. What other devices which operate with the transponder must be calibrated?
  7. Describe the ground and airborne segments of the following navigation systems, and how to use each:


  1. Identify and point out each of the above on a sectional chart.
  2. The FAA has found the PQR VOR to be out of accuracy and providing dangerously inaccurate VOR guidance. The maintenance team is working on the VOR station now. How can you, the pilot, tell that the signals are not reliable?
  3. What type of Navigation stations have Morse code identifiers on them?What do you as a pilot have to do to your radios to hear the Morse code identifier?
  4. How and where do you find out what the identifier is for a particular station?
  5. What is an FSS? Where can you find one on the sectional chart?  On what frequencies can you talk to the FSS?
  6. What is Flight Watch? On what frequency?Where can you find it?
  7. What is an RCO? What use can you make of an RCO?
  8. When can you transmit to the FSS on one frequency and receive on another?How can you find the frequencies for this?
  9. What is a Transcribed Weather Broadcast? Where can you listen to one?
  10. What is radar? What does it do for you?
  11. What is a VHF steer? When would you want one? Who can give this to you?
  12. Describe VFR Flight Following: what it is, who does it,what is the purpose, what are its limitations , how can you get it?
  13. Describe the following airport lighting systems:


Taxiway lights
Runway lights
Pilot controlled lighting
Rotating beacon

  1. What does it mean if the airport rotating beacon is on during the day? Night?
  2. What does an “X” marked on a runway mean?
  3. What is an Alert area? Restricted Area? MOA?
  4. Describe the procedure for using each of the VFR routes through the San Francisco Class B airspace.
  5. What is a Military Training Route? Find one on the sectional chart.
  6. What are the emergency frequencies? When/how do you use it? What do you transmit on it?
  7. What are  frequencies for pilots to use for air to air communications?
  8.  What information should you give to controller on the initial call before entering Class C airspace?
  9. What equipment do you need to enter class B  & C airspace?
  10. You are VFR in the Class C airspace. The controller issues you a heading and altitude which will take you through clouds? What should you do?
  11. Describe the airport traffic pattern; which direction turns are standard; how to determine whether this airport/runway uses standard or non-standard pattern.
  12. Discuss Procedures for entering and leaving pattern for uncontrolled/untowered airfield
  13. Discuss MTRs
  14. Discuss TFR
  15. Describe the procedure for getting clearance into the Class D airspace.
  16. How do you know the traffic pattern altitude at an unfamiliar airport? Runway lengths/widths? Location of hazards? Availability of services? ATIS, tower and ground frequencies? FSS telephone numbers?
  17. For your aircraft , describe the airspeeds, altitudes, gear, flap and power settings to be used on the 45, downwind, base and final.
  18. Describe the procedure for a short field landing, for your aircraft, soft field landing, short field takeoff, and a soft field takeoff.
  19. What is the cross wind limitation of your aircraft?
  20. What is jet wake and what are the Take off and Landing procedures for Jet wake avoidance?
  21. What speed should you fly the aircraft in turbulent conditions?
  22. What is an airway? Find one on the sectional chart.
  23. What is a position report? Is it required? Why make position reports? How do you do one?
  24. How do you change a flight plan while in flight?
  25. What is an ADIZ? Why do you care?
  26. What is the NWS?
  27. What does “see and avoid” mean?
  28. When would you use these transponder codes? 1200, 1201, 7500, 7600, 7700
  29. What information should you provide in a “Mayday” call? What frequencies can you use?
  30. How can you get a preflight weather briefing? What are the sources?
  31. What is an area forecast? Winds aloft forecast?
  32. What is a TAF? What is a METAR?
  33. What is a NOTAM?
  34. Discuss and Review Surface analysis charts, Progs Charts.
  35. Winds aloft forecasts gives you wind in true or magnetic bearing?
  36. What is ATIS? How do you get it?
  37. Wind speeds are in knots or miles per hour?
  38. Why do they broadcast the altimeter setting? How do you correct for your altimeter instrument error?
  39. Describe the following, including implications for the private pilot:

Wind shear
Airframe icing
Carburetor icing
Induction icing
Clear air turbulence
Convective activity
Towering cumulus
Temperature inversion
Marine layer
Wake turbulence
Advection fog

Cold Front

Warm Front

Inversion Layer

  1. What is the best course of action to take if you accidentally fly into a cloud ?
  2. Describe the hazards of wingtip vortices, the conditions under which you might expect to encounter them, and how to avoid them.
  3. What is a graveyard spiral and how is it caused?
  4. What is flicker vertigo and how does it effect a pilot?
  5. What are the early symptoms of hypoxia?If you have symptoms of Hypoxia what are your actions?
  6. Explain the effects of smoking on night flying?
  7. During a go-around, what would be the effect if a pilot were to fail to retract the flaps to the go-around setting, leaving them at the full-down position?
  8. During a go-around, what would be the effect of flying the aircraft at an airspeed higher than that recommended in the go-around procedure?
  9. What is PIO and what are the conditions it occurs?
  10. How do you recognize PIO and what are the recovery actions?
  11. What would be the effect if the pilot were to allow the aircraft to stall while in a full slip ?
  12. What are the following speeds? What does each mean? What are the appropriate speeds for your aircraft?




  1. What are G-forces? How much G force can your aircraft take?
  2. What is Load factor and how does it effect your aircraft?
  3. Explain AOA and Angle of Incidence?
  4. What is the relationship between angle of bank, G force, and stall speed?
  5. What are the signs of an approaching Stall?
  6. What are the typical conditions or phase of flight when stall occurs?
  7. What is an accelerated stall?
  8. What does “cross-control” mean?
  9. Define a slip and skid. How do you correct it?
  10. What is adverse yaw?
  11. Explain stalls and spins , its definition, prevention, recognition and recovery.
  12. Explain torque, slipstream effect, and p-factor.
  13. What type of Flap does your aircraft have?
  14. What is the function of the Flap?
  15. What is the stall speed of your aircraft with bank angles 30, 45, 60 degrees? Clean and Dirty?
  16. What is Zulu time? Greenwich Mean Time?
  17. Which are the time zones in USA?
  18. Discuss airfoils, lift, and drag.
  19. What are the types of Drags?
  20. Discuss induced drag and bank angle.
  21. Compare parasite drag and induced drag
  22. Discuss density altitude and its effects om airplanes.
  23. Discuss fuel leaning procedures for your aircraft.
  24. Discuss detonation and preignition: definitions, causes, effects, relationship, and prevention.
  25. Discuss stall characteristics of clean vs. flaps down. When does this normally occur?
  26. Discuss gyroscopic precession and what instruments have precision effect.
  27. Perform a weight and balance for your aircraft for the days flight.
  28. What would you expect of an aircraft loaded beyond its weight and balance and  CG limits?
  29. Is the engine of your aircraft fuel injected or carburated? What difference does this make?
  30. Is the fuel pump required to be on or off for takeoff and landing in your aircraft?why?
  31. How do you clean out the spark plugs of your rough running engine during run up or flight?
  32. Is this aircraft equipped with an alternator or a generator? What difference does this make? Is it belt or gear driven? What is its capacity?
  33. Explain the fuel system of your aircraft: fuel tanks, valves, drains, cross feeds, vents, return lines, gascolator, required fuel grades, system capacity.
  34. Which direction does the CG shift as fuel is burned off in your aircraft?
  35. What are the effects of Forward CG and backward CG in your aircraft?
  36. Why do you use an avionics master switch in your aircraft?
  37. Where are the alternator field and bus circuit breakers/fuses?What are the types of fuses and for what equipment?
  38. Describe the use of the EGT and CHT gauges, if so equipped.
  39. How do you lean mixture in your aircraft? What are the RPM or power settings?
  40. Does your aircraft have an over voltage protection circuit? Describe its operation including any potential “false activations.”
  41. Which gyros are vacuum driven, and which are electric?
  42. Describe the vacuum system?
  43. How does the Pitot-static system work? What happens if the pitot tube is blocked or cover is not removed?
  44. For your aircraft, what is the rate of climb at 6000 feet pressure altitude, 94 degrees F?
  45. Discuss the ceilings, visibility, cloud types and turbulence, which are to be expected in stable vs. unstable air.
  46. What is the difference between a SIGMET and an AIRMET? CONVECTIVE SIGMET? Explain each.
  47. Cloud ceilings are in feet; is this in MSL or AGL?
  48. Under what weather conditions is carburetor icing most likely? What should you do?
  49. Compare/contrast dead reckoning, pilotage and radio navigation.
  50. How is an aircraft ignition system different than a car? Explain
  51. What is the magneto ground wire? Why is it important to check this?
  52. What are NOTAMS? How do you get this?
  53. Explain the visual illusions and  typical visual effects on the final approach caused by:

a .Rain
b. haze
c. narrower than usual runway
d. wider than usual runway
e. up sloping runway
f. Down sloping runway

150. Discuss Emergencies

  1. Engine failure on Take off – below 500ft. above 700ft.
  2. Engine Fire- On ground, In air.
  3. Glide Ratio of your aircraft & best glide speed.
  4. Total Electrical failure.
  5. Low fuel , off field landing.
  6. Lost procedures?
  7. Tire Burst recognition and procedure.
  8. Low Oil Pressure, High oil Temp.
  9. Brake failure on landing.